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Existence | Hindu philosophy

Hindu philosophy teaches that the soul is a lasting remaining of me after removed or left all from me. The body cannot become "I". Because, we used to say "my body", "my eye", etc. Here, body or eye is part of me, and it never becomes "I". The term "my body" indirectly says that body is part of me, and I am not part of body. Also, it is applicable for all of our senses as well as mind. When I sleep, I exist. Even though, I cannot feel "I" during my sleep. However, I exist, and my mind or senses are unable to find it. Therefore, we could conclude that mind is not "I". If so, who is "I"? Hindu philosophy tells that whether you sleep or not, but living part in you is soul, and the soul is "I".

Existence concept through Socrates and Hindu philosophy

It (soul) sees without sight; hear without hearing; think without thinking; know without knowing. There is no one to see; no one to hear; no one to think; and no one to know, except the soul. It is your soul which is the inner man, the immortal, and others are badness. The soul is to be seen (by inner eye); to be heard (by inner ear); to be minded (by internally); to be meditated (by unity of heart). It reveals by all acts of senses. It never adopts anything, but bears everything. It has not attitude, but experience.

Hindu philosophy gives priority to soul as supernatural stuff. Your existing is based on soul, not like existing concept of Socrates. He used "thinking" to prove our existence while Hinduism sees it as part of us, and our existence can be prove by the soul.

Cogito ergo sum | I think therefore I am – René Descartes

Cogito ergo sum is a Latin phrase (Old Latin as ˈkoːɡitoː ˈɛrɡoː ˈsʊm). This philosophical statement was written by René Descartes in his work, Principles of Philosophy (1644). The Latin phrase can translate as “I think, therefore I am”, and some of others translate as “I think, therefore I exist”. However, it was originally appeared in French as je pense, donc je suis in Descartes’ work “Discourse on the Method” (1637). Due to its important, it took a place in Western philosophy, and it is known as “the cogito ergo sum argument" and simply as the cogito.

Cogito ergo sum | I think therefore I am
Cogito ergo sum | I think therefore I am

This proposition opens paths to analysis of existence and doubt. Therefore, it became one of fundamental elements in philosophical world. Philosophy doubts subjects and asks questions, and then comes to conclusion(s) or gives choices. Existence is one of major subjects; especially it dealt with existence of god. Still it is not concluded. Majority doubts the existence of god. Likewise, our existence is doubtful too. Philosophy questions our existence in the lights of perception and other concepts. But Descartes concluded our existence by the cogito. His idea can interpret as follows:

I think – There is a subject, “I” and a verb, “think”.
The subject “I” is able to think. – The subject can produce an action (verb).
An action (think) cannot function without subject (I).
There is a need for existence of subject to perform an action.
Therefore, subject “I” is existing.

Therefore, our existence is real and it is not doubtful concept. However, it received negative criticisms from scholars. Some of them argued that it is a psychological appeal and self-rationalization, not logical argument. We are unable to deny our existence and impossible to think "I do not exist". Apart from mixed criticisms, the cogito has a better existence in philosophy.

When we compare the cogito and Socrates’ phrase I know that I know nothing, I would thumb up for Socrates. He was neither self- rationalizer nor self-logical arguer.

I know Vs the cogito
I know Vs the cogito

Here is a simple summary of comparison of two phrases.

Phrase I think, therefore I am I know that I know nothing
Philosopher  René Descartes (1596 – 1650) Socrates (470 – 399 BC)
Origin of language Latin Greek
Region Western Western
Type  Epistemology, metaphysics Epistemology
Category Thought (self-existence & doubt) Self-referential paradoxes
Logic Supports proposition only No
Psychology Rationalization Ignorance
Philosophical arguments Yes No

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